Even with places that replicated the exact same financial model as Silicon Valley, but did not implement legal cannabis or gay marriage had a. Innovation, while an economic activity, is fundamentally a social process. of same-sex civil unions and legalization of medical marijuana) and one state, a common measure used by both researchers and policy makers. What do gay marriage, medical marijuana and abortion restrictions have in granted to individuals during those years, a common way of measuring innovation.
Innovation Common? Marijuana, Have and Marriage, Does in What Gay
Compare the reactions to Jesse Jackson and Geraldine Ferraro in Jackson did surprisingly well in the primaries coming in third behind Gary Hart and Walter Mondale , but Ferraro ended up on the ticket. The second banner surely was not widely condemned. I wonder if my little thought-experiment — trying to set my mind back to — is somehow misleading or reveals some of my subconscious prejudices.
Or perhaps I was and remain a product of my environment and was perceiving things in an unusually parochial way. You can reach him by email at inhouse abovethelaw. Junior Government Associate Attorney. Litigation and Trial practice in New York City has an immediate opening for an associate. Women in Legal Innovation Reception. Managing Editor David Lat. Editors Staci Zaretsky Joe Patrice. Send Tips Advertise Events About. X Close Signup Modal Above The Law In your inbox Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more.
Suppose, in , someone posed this question to you: Let's make it official. Sign up for our newsletter. Law School Meme Roundup. From the Above the Law Network Everlaw: Is needed by a global law firm for its Houston office. Then I start puffing. He gives me a double thumbs-up: Cannabis could soon become a normal part of daily life across the anglophone world, just like alcohol or coffee.
Somebody had to do it, because cannabis is now a major public policy issue. On October 17, Canada became the first large economy to legalise recreational weed Uruguay blazed the trail in Thirty US states have already legalised medical cannabis, while nine allow recreational use and Donald Trump has signalled that he supports decriminalisation at a federal level.
Cannabis could soon become a normal part of daily life across the anglophone world, just like alcohol or coffee, displacing cigarettes, which are becoming socially unacceptable. Judging by nearly 50 years of Dutch decriminalisation, is this a good thing? And can pot treat our pain and ailments? Starting probably in ancient China, humans have smoked the cannabis plant for at least years, often as a painkiller.
Cannabis pollen has been found in a year-old Dutch grave. Even Queen Victoria was "prescribed medical marijuana by the royal physician as a pain reliever for menstrual cramps," according to John Hudak in Marijuana: Weed first seems to have become controversial in the s in the US, when American nativists suggestively using the Spanish word linked "marijuana" with Mexican immigrants.
In , soon after abandoning prohibition for alcohol, the US cracked down on weed, Hudak writes. By the late s, the country had, in effect, driven it underground. In , a UN convention ranked cannabis in "schedule one" among the most addictive drugs, dooming it to illegality almost everywhere. Then came Richard Nixon's "war on drugs" — pot, heroin, anything. His target was less weed itself than the long-haired young people who seemed to revere.
In , Nixon set up the Shafer Commission to advise on what action to take. But Shafer's final verdict was unhelpful: He signed laws and built a bureaucracy to fight weed.
Meanwhile, tobacco and alcohol, the drugs of his "silent majority", were pushed by ubiquitous adverts. Nixon himself was a heavy drinker who self-administered the anti-epileptic drug Dilantin as a tranquilliser. Ludo Bossaert opened the Paradox coffee house in Amsterdam 27 years ago. Inadvertently, Nixon helped make cannabis cool. Many American teens already knew from personal experience that weed probably wouldn't destroy your life.
Now it became a low-risk mode of rebellion. While the US fought pot, the Netherlands was discovering it. Possibly the country's first mass marijuana event outside Amsterdam hippie circles was a music festival in Rotterdam in Thousands of youths smoked pot unmolested, while policemen in civilian clothes walked around observing them.
Because it was fantastic, the atmosphere, and there was no reason to fear that anything would happen. The Dutch state didn't legalise cannabis, partly for fear of upsetting foreign allies. However, it decided to stop prosecuting pot smokers. The authorities didn't think that blowen Dutch-English slang for pot-smoking was more dangerous than alcohol or coffee, and even if it was, they thought prohibition would simply create business for criminals.
It's a misconception that the Dutch state is pro-pot, or pro-prostitution legal in the Netherlands. Rather, the Dutch state is pragmatic. It prefers to keep risky activities in the open where they can be regulated and taxed , whereas other countries push them underground into zones of disorder. A worker at Canadian medical cannabis producer CannTrust Holdings. I lived in the Netherlands for most of my school years, from to Our town had coffee shops, and a couple of my friends were briefly potheads, yet it wasn't a big teen craze.
Pot at my high school wasn't associated with creativity or rebellion but with hapless dropouts. Cigarettes were considered cooler. We were lectured only about hard drugs. I still remember our class being shown the terrifying German film Christiane F , about an adolescent heroin addict who becomes a prostitute.
When the Dutch state published a report in ranking the most dangerous drugs, these were its top four: Americans of my generation were raised differently. Nancy Reagan, the US first lady, waged war on hard and soft drugs indiscriminately in the s under the catchphrase "just say no". Around the world, panic-mongering fuddy-duddies gave pot the allure of forbidden fruit. I realised this as a student in Britain when I organised two football tours to Amsterdam. My teammates didn't want to explore Amsterdam student life, with its beautiful cafes and romantic possibilities.
Instead they spent every night traipsing around the red-light district or sitting in shoddy tourist-trap coffee shops. The pot slowed me down especially when teammates held my nose closed so I couldn't exhale , but as an overactive year-old, I didn't want to slow down.
The propagation and mothering room at the CannTrust, Canada. A policy change in October made recreational weed legal. When I sulked, our American goalkeeper lectured me on the thrill of smoking pot legally.
On the other hand, he mused, one thrill of American adolescence was "sneaking around" drinking beer and smoking pot in secret. Legalised dope would ruin that, he said. But at the time, legalisation in the US seemed unthinkable.
Around then, Bill Clinton became the first president to admit having smoked pot adding he hadn't inhaled. His admission simply obliged him to display toughness in prosecuting Nixon's war, Hudak writes.
Dutch pot policy is touched on in the gangster film Pulp Fiction , directed and written by Quentin Tarantino, who briefly lived in Amsterdam:.
Yeah, it breaks down like this: It's legal to carry it, but that doesn't really matter 'cause — get a load of this, all right? I'm going, that's all there is to it. In fact, pot isn't legal in Amsterdam. Bossaert recounts an argument with a policeman who raided the Paradox:.
Bossaert is allowed to sell five grams per customer a day, on which he pays tax, but not VAT — "because it's a nonexistent product in Europe", he says. Supply — the so-called "backdoor" of Dutch coffee shops — is technically illegal. He buys only in cash, from trusted home-growers. With bigger shipments, the people are often borderline criminal. The police check up on him regularly.
If they find minors in his shop, or hard drugs, or excess stock, they can close him down. In Amsterdam had coffee shops. About half have since closed, largely in an attempt to discourage low-grade foreign "drug tourism".
So far, Bossaert has benefited from his rivals' closures. On a weekday afternoon, every table in the Paradox is occupied.
He specialises in "space cakes": A customer from Shanghai once sent him a letter, decorated with origami drawings, thanking him for "the bread".
Space cakes are deceptive. A joint delivers weed to the body fast, whereupon you feel stoned and generally stop smoking a restraint mechanism absent in tobacco and alcohol.
What the Dutch can teach the world about cannabis
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