Cancer J. Sep-Oct;14(5) doi: /PPO.0be Conclusion and future directions. Samlowski WE(1), Vogelzang NJ. Chapter 5. Conclusions and Future Directions. Conclusions. This thesis has explored the idea that the short-term reductions in neural activity that are. This chapter summarizes the main achievements and future directions in prevention, diagnosis, management, and therapy of patients with infective endocarditis.
future Conclusion directions and
CDC's national survey data and some state level data are used by the Healthy People initiative to monitor trends in health outcomes and determinants.
The Healthy People initiative provides goals and objectives with year targets designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts to improve the health of all persons in the United States.
It is grounded in the principle that setting national objectives and monitoring progress can prompt action and improve health. The Healthy People initiative had goals to reduce health disparities among persons in the United States.
Healthy People added elimination, not just reduction, of health disparities, and Healthy People goes even further to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all population groups 1. State and local health departments use the Healthy People program as a way to track the effectiveness of local health initiatives. This supplement provides decision makers with information that they can use to select interventions for certain populations to reduce health disparities.
There is a growing awareness that limited health-care coverage and lack of access are only part of the reason why health disparities exist. Many of the strongest predictors of health are social, economic, and environmental factors.
Reducing disparities requires national leadership to engage a diverse array of stakeholders; facilitate coordination and alignment among federal departments, agencies, offices, and nonfederal partners; champion the implementation of effective policies and programs; and ensure accountability 2. In addition, a complementary national strategy is required that focuses on a comprehensive, community-driven approach to reduce health disparities in the United States and achieve health equity through collaboration and synergy 3.
A persistent barrier to documenting health disparities is the lack of data on certain population characteristics. Only the paper on HIV infection reported rates by sexual orientation. Some data sources used in this report have very limited information on social and demographic characteristics.
For example, death certificates do not have information on sexual orientation, poverty level, or disability 4. Some national health surveys have begun to collect data on sexual orientation, but there are issues that affect the usability of this data. In many instances, the sample sizes are too small to provide meaningful estimates for categories other than heterosexual, and the response rate to the questions on sexual identity is often low. In addition, lack of familiarity with terminology used to describe sexual orientation might have resulted in some misclassification 5.
To promote uniform collection of data on sex, race, ethnicity, primary language, and disability status, in October , the U. These data standards apply to all population health surveys conducted or supported by the federal government that use self- or proxy-reported data "to the extent practicable. The recommended questions are considered to be a minimum set, and additional questions can be asked in surveys "provided that the additional detail could be aggregated back to the minimum standard and the sample design and sample size support estimates at that level of granularity" 7.
The purpose of this provision of ACA is to provide standard approaches for collecting, analyzing, and reporting on health disparities that might exist between various demographic segments of the U. A standard set of questions to be asked in all national population surveys will improve understanding of the role of certain conditions as a risk factor for preventable poor health.
CDC is evaluating the feasibility of incorporating the new data standards into many of its surveys and public health surveillance systems. Some modes of questionnaire administration might not readily support elements of the data standards because of the length of time needed to collect the data.
For example, the data standard for classifying race establishes 14 categories that can be collapsed into the five categories established in by OMB.
The 14 categories are preferred when sample sizes can support the increased detail. More than one race can be specified but there is no "multiracial" category. Although a mandatory minimum set of six questions was established for determining disability status, no provision exists for modifying data collection modes to accommodate the new questions. One of the questions is, "Are you deaf or do you have serious difficulty hearing?
Another option for gathering data on persons with serious hearing difficulty is internet panel surveys. CDC is conducting many activities that support reducing health disparities and promoting health equity. The Task Force makes recommendations based on systematic reviews of published studies on many important public health topics 8. These recommendations identify programs, services, and policies proven effective in a variety of real-world settings e.
One topic the Task Force considered was effectiveness of interventions to improve colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening. After reviewing the evidence, the Task Force recommended nine strategies for helping bring those who are eligible for colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening to the point of care, including such services and programs as client reminders, one-on-one education, reducing structural barriers e.
Many of these services have been effective for underserved populations and communities that are at greatest risks for cancer 9. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity OMHHE advances policy, scientific, and programmatic efforts to eliminate health disparities affecting populations at social, economic, or environmental disadvantage and achieve health equity in the U.
For example, OMHHE provides leadership in the development and promotion of Healthy People Social Determinants of Health objectives and is leading an effort to compile promising practices and strategies used by CDC-funded programs to address health disparities. Don't have an account? This chapter summarizes the argument and findings of this book, with a reminder of the limitations intrinsic to a psycholinguistic approach to a dead language.
Clarity sapheneia , processability, and understandability are discussed with reference to both on-line and off-line comprehension. The chapter also underlines how such an approach may provide a new key to studies of oral performance and textual reception. In particular, the reconstruction of on-line native language processing of Greek prose texts may provide a starting point for the reconstruction of paralinguistic and non-linguistic communication.
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The final chapter offers concluding comments and observations on the present state of the online illicit drugs trade. Cryptomarkets are discussed as entering a. Oct 12, Conclusion and Future Directions. Authors; Authors and affiliations. Xinxin Liu Email author; Xiaolin Li. Chapter. First Online: 12 October Chapter 5: Conclusion and Future Directions. The following quotation from Goodman among others () on the nature of field epidemiology is highly relevant.