In response to cold stress, subjects who had taken CBD had blunted .. Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to cold stress. Cannabidiol (CBD) has beneficial effects in disorders as wide ranging CBD reduces the cardiovascular response to models of stress, applied. Despite cannabidiol (CBD) having numerous cardiovascular effects in In models of stress, acute CBD administration significantly reduced the.
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Children showed the greatest improvement during the interactive distraction task. The effects of distraction on children's cold pressor pain tolerance are significantly enhanced when the distraction task also includes greater demands for central cognitive processing. Research has demonstrated that values and acceptance interventions can increase distress tolerance, but the individual contribution of each remains unclear. The current study examined the isolated effect of a values intervention on immersion time in a cold pressor.
Immersion time increased Increases in self-reported pain and distress predicted decreases in immersion time for Control, but not Values, participants. Results suggest that a brief isolated values exercise can be used to improve distress tolerance despite increased perceptions of pain and distress, such that values alone may be sufficient to facilitate openness to difficult experiences.
Effect of acute transdermal estrogen administration on basal, mental stress and cold pressor -induced sympathetic responses in postmenopausal women. Administration of estrogen has vascular effects through poorly defined mechanisms that may include sympathetic withdrawal. A p-value, adjusted for multiple comparisons, of test , and during a cold pressor test. Estrogen did not attenuate basal or stimulated hemodynamic responses significantly.
The increase in mean arterial pressure after the Stroop test 5. Basal, mental stress and cold pressor -stimulated norepinephrine spillover were not significantly affected by short-term estrogen administration.
Norepinephrine spillover tended to be higher after estrogen Acute transdermal estrogen administration did not attenuate norepinephrine spillover or sympathetically mediated hemodynamic responses.
Incongruence of pain severity ratings among people experiencing pain and their observers has been linked to psychological distress. Previous studies have measured pain rating congruence through static self-report, involving a single rating of pain; however, this method does not capture changes in ratings over time.
The present study examined the extent to which partners were congruent on multiple ratings of a participants' pain severity during the cold pressor task. Furthermore, 2 components of pain anxiety-pain catastrophizing and perceived threat-were examined as predictors of pain congruence. Both partners completed measures of pain catastrophizing and perceived threat before randomization to their cold pressor participant or observer roles.
Participants and observers rated the participant's pain in writing several times over the course of the task. On average, observers rated participants' pain as less severe than participants' rated their own pain.
In addition, congruence between partners increased over time because of observers' ratings becoming more similar to participant's ratings. Finally, pain catastrophizing and perceived threat independently and jointly influenced the degree to which partners similarly rated the participant's pain.
This article presents a novel application of the cold pressor task to show that pain rating congruence among romantic partners changes over time.
These findings indicate that pain congruence is not static and is subject to pain anxiety in both partners. Published by Elsevier Inc. Effects of playing video games on pain response during a cold pressor task. Two studies assessed whether playing video games would significantly distract participants from painful stimulation via a cold pressor test. No differences were found on scores of aggressiveness, competitiveness, or prior video game experience, suggesting that these factors play little role.
Video game play produced an increase in pulse, which was greatest during the action, fighting, sports, and boxing games. Pain tolerance was greatest during the sports and fighting games. Thus, certain games produce greater distraction, which may have implications for the medical field as an adjunct to pain management.
The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality VR enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness.
As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found.
Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. Participants underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by interactive distraction trial, passive distraction trial, or second baseline trial. One or two additional trials followed.
Children originally assigned to distraction received the alternate distraction intervention. Controls participated in both interactive and passive distraction trials in counterbalanced order. The two distraction conditions did not differ. Future studies should examine whether more extensive training would enhance effects of interactive video game distraction. Cardiovascular and sympathetic neural responses to handgrip and cold pressor stimuli in humans before, during and after spaceflight.
Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D. Astronauts returning to Earth have reduced orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system and neuromuscular function after spaceflight might contribute to this problem. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs autonomic neural control of sympathetic outflow in response to peripheral afferent stimulation produced by handgrip and a cold pressor test in humans.
We studied five astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, and on landing day after the 16 day Neurolab STS space shuttle mission, and four of the astronauts during flight day 12 or The cold pressor test was applied only before five astronauts and during flight day 12 or 13, four astronauts.
At the same relative fatiguing force, the peak systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure during static handgrip were not different before, during and after spaceflight. Contraction-induced rises in heart rate were similar pre-, in- and post-flight. Similarly, responses of MSNA and blood pressure.
The Role of Cognitive Processing. Predictors of trait dissociation and peritraumatic dissociation induced via cold pressor. Understanding which factors predict individual dissociative response during stressful situations is important to clarify the nature of dissociation and the mechanisms associated to its use as a coping strategy.
The present study examined 1 whether experiential avoidance EA , anxiety sensitivity AS , depressive symptoms, and state anxiety concurrently predicted trait dissociation TD -absorption, amnesia, depersonalization, and total TD scores-and laboratory induced dissociation LID ; and 2 whether TD and catastrophizing predicted LID. We also examined whether catastrophizing mediated the relationships between both AS and depressive symptoms and LID.
A total of female undergraduate students participated in a cold pressor task, which significantly induced dissociation. Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that AS at Time 1 9 months before the experimental session , as well as depressive symptoms and catastrophizing at the time of the experiment Time 2 , predicted LID at Time 2. Depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted total TD, absorption, and amnesia scores. AS at Time 1 and depressive symptoms at Time 2 predicted depersonalization.
AS, depressive symptoms, and catastrophizing seem to facilitate the use of dissociative strategies by healthy individuals, even in response to non-traumatic but discomforting stress.
Relationship between cold pressor pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in opioid-dependent males on methadone treatment.
Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy MMT but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test CPT and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population. A total of male participants were included into the study.
Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. The mean age of study participants was Mean daily methadone dose was The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to s with a mean time of With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores adjusted mean 5.
Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.
Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children. This study examined the effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality VR type head-mounted display helmet for children undergoing cold pressor pain.
Fifty children between the ages of 6 and 10 years underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered via a VR helmet or without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As expected, children demonstrated significant improvements in pain threshold and pain tolerance during both distraction conditions. However, the two distraction conditions did not differ in effectiveness.
Using the VR helmet did not result in improved pain tolerance over and above the effects of interactive videogame distraction without VR technology.
Clinical implications and possible developmental differences in elementary school-aged children's ability to use VR technology are discussed. Comparisons of catastrophizing, pain attitudes, and cold-pressor pain experience between Chinese and European Canadian young adults.
Experimental pain research indicates ethnic differences in pain experience. Most of the cross-cultural pain research studied African Americans and Hispanics with little data available for Asian groups. This study examined differences in pain catastrophizing, pain attitudes, and pain responses between Chinese and European Canadian young adults.
Prior to completing a cold-pressor CP task, 80 Chinese and 80 European Canadian undergraduate students were administered measures of pain catastrophizing and pain attitudes, including stoicism and cautiousness. Pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain intensity were measured during the CP task. The Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire was administered immediately postimmersion to measure sensory and affective pain.
While there was no group difference in pain threshold and pain intensity, Chinese participants displayed lower pain tolerance and reported higher SF-MPQ-Affective than European Canadians. Regarding psychological variables, there was no difference in stoicism and cautiousness between groups, but Chinese participants reported greater pain catastrophizing. The implications of the findings and future research were discussed.
The study found ethnic differences in cold-pressor responses, in which Chinese undergraduates reported higher levels of pain compared to their Euro-Canadian counterparts. The finding that pain catastrophizing mediated the ethnic difference in SF-MPQ-Affective scores indicated the importance of examining the role of catastrophizing in pain reports from Chinese and Euro-Canadian patients. Chronic pain frequently involves cognitive complaints such as concentration and memory deficits, but studies of the effects of pain on cognition have not consistently demonstrated deficits and have not typically utilized standard neuropsychological instruments.
Scaled scores for normal administration versus pain or painless water immersion did not differ and there was no interaction between group control vs. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers does not impair PSI or WMI performance, and they suggest that chronic pain per se should not be expected to substantially affect these cognitive functions.
However, patients with chronic pain may differ from nonclinical volunteers in their experience of pain, potentially limiting generalizability. Effect of intravenous infusion of a beta-adrenergic blocking agent on the haemodynamic changes in human masseter muscle induced by cold-pressor stimulation.
Eight healthy non-smoking males mean age: Haemoglobin Hb and oxygen O2 saturation in the right masseter muscle were continuously recorded with a non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic device. Heart rate and blood pressure were also recorded. The experiment had three phases: The saline and drug trials each involved continuous recording for 1 min before, 2 min during and 5 min after the cold-pressor stimulation 4 degrees C.
This infusion was begun 20 min before the baseline recording and participants did not know which solution saline or propranolol was being infused. For the MVC trial, each participant was asked to perform a sec clench of their jaw-closing muscles.
There was a rest period of 15 min between each trial. The individual Hb and O2 data were normalized so that the baseline at the beginning of the experiment was equal to zero, and the Hb and O2 data were normalized as a percentage of the individual's own highest absolute Hb and O2 after and during the MVC, respectively.
The mean Hb rebound change after the cold-pressor stimulation in the beta-blocker trial was significantly higher than in the placebo trial, and no significant heart-rate differences were observed in the period after cold-pressor stimulation.
Overall, the mean heart rate before and during that. Response inhibition predicts painful task duration and performance in healthy individuals performing a cold pressor task in a motivational context. Long-term avoidance of painful activities has shown to be dysfunctional in chronic pain. Pain may elicit escape or avoidance responses automatically, particularly when pain-related fear is high. An inhibitory control system may resolve this conflict. Response inhibition was measured with the stop-signal task, and pain-related fear with the Fear of Pain Questionnaire.
Participants completed a tone-detection task TDT in which they could earn money while being exposed to cold pressor pain.
Pain after the CPT was associated with pain-related fear, but not with response inhibition. In contrast, the relation between response inhibition and number of hits on the TDT was most pronounced for those with lower pain-related fear.
The cold pressor task CPT is increasingly used to induce experimental pain in children, but the specific methodology of the CPT is quite variable across pediatric studies. This study examined how subtle variations in CPT methodology eg. Parents and children in the high-threat condition expected greater child pain, and these children reported higher perceived threat of pain and state pain catastrophizing.
For children in the low-threat condition, an informed ceiling was associated with less state pain catastrophizing during the CPT. Pain intensity, tolerance, and fear during the CPT did not differ by experimental group, but were predicted by child characteristics. Findings suggest that provision of threatening information may impact anticipatory outcomes, but experienced pain was better explained by individual child variables. Effect of cold pressor stimulation 4 degrees C on human masseter muscle haemodynamics during and after sustained isometric contraction.
Total haemoglobin was measured in the masseter before, during and after the contraction task using near-infrared spectroscopy. CP stimulation during the isometric contraction diminished the magnitude of the contraction-induced decrease of blood volume when compared to the trials without CP stimulation.
However, in the immediate post-contraction period while the CP stimulation was still in place , no increase in blood volume above the usual post-contraction hyperaemia was evident.
Once the CP stimulation had been removed, there was a clear decrease faster return to baseline in the vasodilation occurring in the post-contraction period. This diminished period of vasodilation occurred in spite of the fact that the vascular resistance blood pressure and heart rate were still substantially elevated by the CP effect during this same period. These data suggest that the strong CP stimulation produced a biphasic response. First, there was an early-onset strong vasodilation during CP , which was followed by a period of diminished vasodilation, suggesting that an active, but delayed, vasoconstrictive drive may be induced by the CP stimulus.
Extant research focuses on parent self-reported experience or observable behavioural responses. Physiological responding, such as heart rate HR and heart rate variability HRV , is critical to the experience and regulation of emotions and provides a complementary perspective on parent experience; yet, it is scarcely assessed.
Consequently, considering previous experience with pain and resting HRV levels are relevant to understanding parent physiological responses before and after child pain. Objective Individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome CFS experience many pain symptoms. The present study examined whether pain and fatigue ratings and pain threshold and tolerance levels for cold pain differed between twins with CFS and their cotwins without CFS.
Design Cotwin control design to assess cold pain sensitivity, pain, and fatigue in monozygotic twins discordant for CFS. Results Although cold pain threshold and tolerance levels were slightly lower in twins with CFS than their cotwins without CFS, these differences failed to reach statistical significance.
This study evaluated the effect of intravenous infusion of a non-selective alpha-adrenergic blocking agent on masseter muscle haemodynamics induced by 4 degrees C cold pressor stimulation CPS of the right foot and ankle, which reportedly evokes a rapidly increasing sympathetic nerve activity in human skeletal muscle.
Nine healthy non-smoking males mean age The haemoglobin Hb concentration in the right masseter was continuously recorded by non-invasive, near-infrared spectroscopy. The experiment involved the following sequence: The saline and drug trials each involved continuous recording for 1 min before, 2 min during and 5 min after the CPS.
This infusion was begun 15 min before baseline recording and participants were not aware which solution saline or phentolamine was being infused. For the MVC trial, each participant performed a sec MVC of his jaw-closing muscles followed by a min rest between each trial. The individual Hb data were adjusted so that the baseline at the beginning of the experiment was equal to zero and all data were normalized as a percentage of the individual's highest absolute Hb change seen after the MVC.
The mean baseline Hb concentrations 1 min before CPS were significantly higher in the alpha-blocker trial When the propellants in a liquid rocket engine burn, the rocket not only launches and moves in space, it causes forces that interact with the vehicle itself.
When these interactions occur under specific conditions, the vehicle's structures and components can become unstable. One instability of primary concern is termed pogo named after the movement of a pogo stick , in which the oscillations cycling movements cause large loads, or pressure, against the vehicle, tanks, feedlines, and engine.
Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC has developed a unique test technology to understand and quantify the complex fluid movements and forces in a liquid rocket engine that contribute strongly to both engine and integrated vehicle performance and stability. This new test technology was established in the MSFC Cold Flow Propulsion Test Complex to allow injection and measurement of scaled propellant flows and measurement of the resulting forces at multiple locations throughout the engine.
Repeatability of a cold stress test to assess cold sensitization. Non-freezing cold injury NFCI is a syndrome in which damage to peripheral tissues occurs without the tissues freezing following exposure to low ambient temperatures. To assess the test -retest reliability of a cold stress test CST used to assess cold sensitization.
Thermal images were taken of the foot and hand before, immediately after and 5min after immersion of the limb in cold water for 2min. Cold sensitization was graded by the two clinicians and the lead author. Spot temperatures from the toe and finger pads were recorded. There were 30 white and 19 black male participants. The test -retest reliability of the CST is considered adequate for the assessment of the cold sensitization of the hands and feet of white and the hands of black healthy non-patients.
The study should be repeated with patients who have suffered a NFCI. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test. One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions.
Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold , cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen.
The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions.
The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.
A propulsion cold flow test system, representing an early flight design of the propulsion system, has been fabricated. The primary objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the Resource Prospector propulsion system operation through water flow testing and obtain data for anchoring analytical models. This effort will also provide an opportunity to develop a propulsion system mockup to examine hardware integration to a flight structure.
This paper will report the work progress of the propulsion cold flow test system development and test preparation. At the time this paper is written, the initial waterhammer testing is underway. The initial assessment of the test data suggests that the results are as expected and have a similar trend with the pretest prediction.
The test results will be reported in a future conference. Cold -welding test environment. A flight test was conducted and compared with ground test data. Sixteen typical spacecraft material couples were mounted on an experimental research satellite in which a motor intermittently drove the spherical moving specimens across the faces of the fixed flat specimens in an oscillating motion.
Friction coefficients were measured over a period of month orbital time. Surface-to-surface sliding was found to be the controlling factor of generating friction in a vacuum environment. Friction appears to be independent of passive vacuum exposure time. Prelaunch and postlaunch tests identical to the flight test were performed in an oil-diffusion-pumped ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Identical ground tests were run in an ultrahigh vacuum facility and a ion-pumped vacuum chamber.
Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure. Orthostatic hypotension is the most disabling symptom of autonomic failure. The choice of a pressor agent is largely empiric, and it would be of great value to define predictors of a response.
In 35 patients with severe orthostatic hypotension due to multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure, we determined the effect on seated systolic blood pressure SBP of placebo, phenylpropanolamine In a subgroup of patients, we compared the pressor effect of midodrine 5 mg with the effect of phenylpropanolamine There were no significant differences in the pressor responses between patients with multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure.
When compared with placebo, the pressor response was significant for phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin. In a subgroup of patients, we confirmed that this pressor effect of phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin corresponded to a significant increase in standing SBP. The pressor responses to ibuprofen, caffeine, and methylphenidate were not significantly different from placebo.
Phenylpropanolamine and midodrine elicited similar pressor responses. There were no significant associations between drug response and autonomic function testing , postprandial hypotension, or plasma catecholamine levels. We conclude that significant increases in systolic blood pressure can be obtained in patients with orthostatic hypotension due to primary autonomic failure with phenylpropanolamine in low doses or yohimbine or indomethacin in moderate doses. The response to a pressor agent cannot be predicted by autonomic function testing or plasma catecholamines.
Therefore, empiric testing with a sequence of medications, based on the risk of side effects in the individual patient and the probability of a response, is a useful approach. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component.
The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles.
Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system.
The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test , and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.
At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission.
The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas.
In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles.
The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. Individual Soldier Clothing 5a. This Test Operations Procedure TOP provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions Soldier clothing , along with its safety, reliability, durability, and performance when exposed to a cold regions environment.
The procedures outlined in this TOP are designed to determine the c-h-arac-teristics of indirect artillery. Innovative cold tolerance test for conifer seedlings. Forest tree nurseries rely on tight scheduling of operations to deliver vital seedlings to the planting site. Cold storage is required to: July AD NO. Test of cold asphalt storability based on alternative approaches. Cold asphalt products for potholes repairs should be workable soft enough for long time to ensure their applicability.
Storability is assessed indirectly using various tests of workability. Therefore, simple test methods self-compaction and disintegration test was developed and verified to investigate changes of storability of this group of cold asphalts.
After that the video record of disintegration test was taken. The drop of surface after 10 min self-compaction and netto time related to falling out or disintegration of the mixture were used to evaluate the mixture from storability point of view. It was found out the self-compaction test has not a potential to reveal and prove changes of mixture properties.
A motor vehicle emissions testing study was conducted in Anchorage and Fairbanks during the winter of to collect actual measurements of initial idle emission rates. The study was performed for a sample of automobiles and light-duty trucks under cold wintertime ambient The overall performance of the vitrification process equipment with a liquid-fed ceramic glass melter as main component proved to be completely in line with the requirements of the regulatory body.
The retention efficiency of main radioactive-bearing elements across melter and wet off-gas treatment system exceeded the design values distinctly. The strategy to produce a specified waste glass could be successfully demonstrated. An important step of the VEK vitrification plant towards hot operation has been the performance of the cold test operation from April to July This first integral operation was carried out under boundary conditions and rules established for radioactive operation.
Operation and process control were carried out following the procedure as documented in the licensed operational manuals. The function of the process technology and the safe operation could be demonstrated.
No severe problems were encountered. Based on the positive results of the cold test , application of the license for hot operation has been initiated and is expected in the near future. Cold sensitivity test for individuals with non-freezing cold injury: This study examined the effects of prior exercise on the response to a cold sensitivity test CST in NFCI patients with the aim of improving diagnostic accuracy.
Results The great toe skin temperature Tsk before immersion averaged Testing of materials from the Minnesota Cold Regions pavement research test facility. The tests helped to characterize the behavior of materials under season frost conditions, and Design verification and cold -flow modeling test report.
Advanced development receiver thermal vacuum tests with cold wall. The first ever testing of a full size solar dynamic heat receiver using high temperature thermal energy storage was completed. The heat receiver was designed to meet the requirements for operation on the Space Station Freedom. The purpose of the test program was to quantify the receiver thermodynamic performance, its operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions.
Upon arrival, subjects were rested for 10—15 minutes, and their baseline blood pressure and heart rate were recorded using a digital blood pressure BP monitor. Participants were given a standardized breakfast, and 15 minutes later, they were given either oral CBD mg or placebo in a double-blind fashion. This is a dose known to cause anxiolytic effects in humans and is comparable with what is used clinically 19 , 37 — Study medication consisted of capsules containing either mg of CBD or excipients, which were a gift from GW Pharmaceuticals.
There was no difference between the 2 formulations in color, taste, or smell. Two hours afterward, subjects were asked to perform the stress tests Timing of the tests was chosen to coincide with peak plasma levels for CBD All the experiments were performed in a sitting position under ambient temperature conditions.
Maximum voluntary contraction for the isometric hand grip test was assessed for each subject prior to administering study medication. After administration of CBD or placebo, subjects remained seated, either doing nothing, reading, or using a computer. During this time, subjects were connected to a calibrated Finometer Finapres Medical Systems , which uses a finger-clamp method to detect beat-to-beat changes in digital arterial diameter using an infrared photoplethysmograph The Finometer gives a continuous signal of beat-to-beat changes in blood pressure and blood flow, and it uses this signal to derive other parameters, including systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure; interbeat interval; heart rate and left ventricular ejection time; stroke volume; cardiac output; and systemic peripheral resistance.
Baseline cardiovascular data was recorded for 2 hours following administration of CBD or placebo. Forearm blood flow was measured using a calibrated laser Doppler flowmeter Perimed After 2 hours, subjects underwent the cardiovascular stress tests in the following order: The mental arithmetic test consisted of calculating a sum every 2 second for 2 minutes. Subjects were seated in front of a computer screen, and a PowerPoint presentation delivered a slide with a simple mathematical sum of a 3-digit number minus a smaller number e.
Cardiovascular parameters were measured continuously using the Finometer, while skin blood flow measurements were taken just before, during, and 5 minutes after each test. Each stress test lasted for 2 minutes, and there was a recovery period of at least 10 minutes. Data were not unblinded until after statistical analysis. Ten healthy young male volunteers, mean age 24 years range 19—29 , with no underlying cardiovascular or metabolic disorders, were recruited for this study, which was approved by the University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine Ethics Committee study reference E Written informed consent was obtained according to the Declaration of Helsinki.
Exclusion criteria included any significant cardiovascular or metabolic disorder or use of any medication. All the volunteers were nonsmokers and had taken no prescribed or over-the-counter medication within a week prior to randomization.
No volunteers had ever used cannabis. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jun Jadoon , 1 Garry D. Tan , 2 and Saoirse E. Find articles by Khalid A. Find articles by Garry D. Find articles by Saoirse E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 2; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between long-term stress and the development of cardiovascular disease 1.
Results Ten male subjects were recruited, but 1 withdrew for personal reasons. Effect of CBD on resting cardiovascular parameters. Open in a separate window. Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters mental stress. Discussion Based on preclinical evidence, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that CBD would reduce the cardiovascular response to stress in healthy volunteers.
Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to mental stress. Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to exercise stress. Effect of CBD on cardiovascular parameters in response to cold stress. Click here to view. Footnotes Conflict of interest: The time has come for physicians to take notice: Perk J, et al. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice version Goldberg AD, et al.
Ischemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal responses to mental and exercise stress. Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? Br J Clin Pharmacol. Rajesh M, et al. Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption. Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
J Am Coll Cardiol. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes.
A Study on the effects of CBD and High Blood Pressure & Low Blood pressure
6 days ago The scientific debate has been going on for years whether marijuana has an effect on the cardiovascular system. Marijuana CBD and blood. In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence 2) A one step reaction for CBD synthesis utilizes boron trifluoride (BF3)- etherate on . ice cold solution of CBD ( mg) in dry methylene chloride (15 ml). . in animal models of stress it reduces heart rate and blood pressure. This study investigated the effect of Cannabidiol (CBD) on cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure) −Resting cardiovascular parameters (CBD versus Placebo) isometric exercise test and cold stress test (CBD versus Placebo) Location United Kingdom; Focus Adverse reactions; Therapeutic Use.